Dr. R. Beezer Fall 2003

- To introduce the student to the power of discrete mathematics and to become comfortable with learning new modes of mathematical thought.
- To become familiar with the two-thousand year history of cryptology, and to therefore more fully appreciate the revolutionary nature of the debut of public-key cryptography in the 1970's.
- To consider critically the societal implications created by recent advances in this field.
- To become a more informed consumer of encryption technologies, and a more savvy user of electronic communications.

This book is directed toward those whose mathematical background includes college-preparatory courses such as high school algebra and geometry. In earlier drafts, I have used it as the basis for a course [at Rhodes College] for which there were no formal mathematical prerequisites at the college level. Students majoring in areas from Art History to Zoology took the course. Many had not taken mathematics in four or five years.

Course Outline |

**Unit 1 History, Classical Ciphers**-
**Singh,***The Code Book*-
**Chapter 1**- The Cipher of Mary Queen of Scots
**Chapter 2**- Le Chiffre Indechiffrable
**Chapter 3**- The Mechanisation of Secrecy
**Chapter 4**- Cracking the Enigma
**Chapter 5**- The Language Barrier

**Barr,***Invitation to Cryptology*-
**Chapter 1**- Origins, Examples, and Ideas in Cryptology.

A Crypto-Chronology. Functions. Crypto: Models, Maxims, and Mystique. **Chapter 2**- Classical Cryptographic Techniques.

Shift Ciphers and Modular Arithmetic. Affine Ciphers; More Modular Arithmetic. Substitution Ciphers. Transposition Ciphers. Polyalphabetic Substitutions. Probability and Expectation. The Friedman and Kasiski Tests. Cryptanalysis of the Vingenere Cipher. The Hill Cipher; Matrices.

**Unit 2 Revolution, Modern Ciphers**-
**Barr,***Invitation to Cryptology*-
**Chapter 3**- Symmetric Computer-Based Cryptology.

Number Representation. Computational Complexity. Stream Ciphers and Feedback Shift Registers. Block Ciphers. Hash Functions. **Chapter 4**- Public-Key Cryptography.

Primes, Factorization, and the Euclidean Algorithm. The Merkle-Hellman Knapsack. A Little Number Theory: Fermat's Little Theorem. The RSA Public-Key Cryptosystem. Key Agreement and the ElGamal Cryptosystem. Digital Signatures. Zero-Knowledge Identification Protocols.

**Singh,***The Code Book*-
**Chapter 6**- Alice and Bob Go Public
**Chapter 7**- Pretty Good Privacy

**Unit 3 The Future, Public Policy, Computer Security**-
**Singh,***The Code Book*-
**Chapter 8**- A Quantum Leap into the Future

**Barr,***Invitation to Cryptology*-
**Chapter 5**- Present Practice, Issues, and the Future.

A Cryptographic Standard: DES. Electronic Mail Security. Public Key Infrastructure. Policy, Privacy, and International Issues.

**Levy,***Crypto***Schneier,***Secrets and Lies*

**Steganography**- Hide an encrypted message in an image, using a software tool designed for this purpose.
**Monoalphabetic Ciphers**- Decode a classic text that is encrypted using a monoalphabetic cipher, using software tools to make the task more manageable.
**Solitaire**- Practice the Solitaire (Pontifex) algorithm, as described in the novel
*Cryptonomicon*. **Simplified DES**- Encode and decode messages by hand using an educational version of the Data Encryption Standard (DES). Participate in a mock distributed brute-force attack.
**Pretty Good Privacy**- Become proficient in using the encryption program Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) for public-key encryption and digital signatures. Understand the basics of key management. There will be three practicums using this protocol.
**Digital Time Stamping**- Learn to use Stamper to digitally time-stamp a message.
**Anonymous Remailers**- Learn to frustrate traffic analysis by using anonymous remailers and mixmasters to camaflougue message traffic.

Bibliography |

- Alvarez, David J.
*Secret messages : codebreaking and American diplomacy, 1930-1945.*Lawrence, KS, University Press of Kansas. 2000. A good history, especially for its coverage of the pre-WWII time period. -
Benson, Robert Louis and Michael Warner, Eds.
*Venona: Soviet espionage and the American response, 1939-1957.*Washington, D.C., National Security Agency, Central Intelligence Agency. 1996. Cold War era cryptanalysis. -
Calvocoressi, Peter.
*Top secret ultra.*New York, Pantheon Books. 1980. A memoir of WWII-era cryptanalysis in Europe. -
Clark, Ronald William.
*The man who broke Purple : the life of Colonel William F. Friedman, who deciphered the Japanese code in World War II.*Boston, Little, Brown. 1977. -
Farago, Ladislas.
*The broken seal; the story of Operation Magic and the Pearl Harbor disaster.*New York, Random House. 1967. WWII-era cryptanalysis in the Pacific. -
Garlinski, Jozef.
*The Enigma war.*New York, Scribner. 1980. WWII-era cryptanalysis in Europe. -
Hinsley, F.H. and Alan Stripp, eds.
*Codebreakers : the inside story of Bletchley Park.*Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press. 1993. The history of Bletchley Park, where English and American codebreakers helped win WWII. -
Kahn, David.
*The codebreakers; the story of secret writing.*London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson. 1967. The most comprehensive history of cryptology, though insufficient for modern topics. -
Kozaczuk, Wadysaw.
*Enigma : how the German machine cipher was broken, and how it was read by the Allies in World War Two.*Frederick, Md., University Publications of America. 1984. An account of the Polish efforts to break Enigma, which laid the groundwork for Bletchley Park to eventually succeed. -
Kippenhahn, Rudolf.
*Code breaking : a history and exploration.*Woodstock, N.Y., Overlook Press. 1999. The runner-up (to Singh's*The Code Book*) as best choice for a history that also contains some simplified technical explanations. -
Singh, Simon.
*The code book : the evolution of secrecy from Mary Queen of Scots to quantum cryptography.*New York, Doubleday. 1999. A well-written popular account of the history of cryptology, with excellent technical descriptions. -
Thompson, James Westfall.
*Secret diplomacy; espionage and cryptography, 1500-1815.*New York, F. Ungar Pub. Co. 1963. A good account of classical cryptology in Europe. -
United States Army Air Forces.
*ULTRA and the history of the United States Strategic Air Force in Europe vs. the German Air Force.*Frederick, MD, University Publications of America. 1980. An official report on WWII-era cryptanalysis in Europe. -
Van Der Rhoer, Edward.
*Deadly magic : a personal account of communications intelligence in World War II in the Pacific.*New York, Scribner. 1978. WWII-era cryptanalysis in the Pacific. -
Winterbotham, F. W.
*The Ultra secret.*New York, Harper & Row. 1974. WWII-era cryptanalysis in Europe. -
Yardley, Herbert O.
*The American Black Chamber.*Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill. 1931. A classic. Yardley was the first cryptologist officially in the employ of the United States.

- Barr, Thomas H.
*Invitation to Cryptology.*Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall. 2002. Best choice for a textbook to use at the freshman level for students with normal high school preparation in mathematics. -
Beutelspacher, Albrecht.
*Cryptology.*Washington, DC, Mathematical Association of America. 1994. An entertaining elementary treatment. -
Klugerman, Ira H. and Dan Rose.
*Cracking the code.*Lexington, Mass., COMAP. 1993. Instructional videotape. -
Davis, Donald M.
*The nature and power of mathematics.*Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press. 1993. Contains a short, elementary section on cryptology. -
Garfinkel, Simson
*PGP: pretty good privacy.*Sebastopol, CA, O'Reilly & Associates. 1995. How-to book on how to use the most popular personal encryption software available. -
Lewand, Robert.
*Cryptological mathematics.*Washington, DC, Mathematical Society of America. 2000. Written for an audience of high school students, this might be the runner-up for the mathematical text for this course. -
Sinkov, Abraham.
*Elementary cryptanalysis : a mathematical approach.*Washington, D.C., Mathematical Association of America. 1980. High-school level, classical techniques only. -
Smith, Laurence Dwight.
*Cryptography, the science of secret writing.*New York, W. W. Norton. 1943. Dated. Only covers techniques for classical methods.

- Bauer, Friedrich Ludwig.
*Decrypted secrets: methods and maxims of cryptology*New York, Springer. 2000. An advanced textbook. -
Biham, Eli.
*Differential cryptanalysis of the data encryption standard.*New York, Springer-Verlag. 1993. Detailed mathematical treatment of the first successful application of differential cryptanalysis. -
Bouwmeester, Dirk and Artur Ekert and Anton Zeilinger, Eds.
*The physics of quantum information : quantum cryptography, quantum teleportation, quantum computation.*New York, Springer. 2000. Good account of possibilities for quantum computing in cryptographic applications. -
Brassard, Gilles.
*Modern cryptology: a tutorial.*New York, Springer-Verlag. 1988. Very short, very advanced. -
Electronic Frontier Foundation.
*Cracking DES : secrets of encryption research, wiretap politics & chip design.*Sebastopal, CA, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc. 1998. Fantastic break of DES with cheap hardware, with this report prepared for distribution simultaneous with the announcement of the break. -
Friedman, William F.
*The Riverbank publications.*Laguna Hills, Calif., Aegean Park Press. 1979. A bit odd, but written by one of the key figures in the history of American cryptanalysis. -
Garrett, Paul.
*Making, breaking codes: an introduction to cryptography*Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall. 2001. An upper-division textbook. -
Koblitz, Neal.
*Algebraic aspects of cryptography.*New York, Springer. 1998. Beginning graduate level text. -
Koblitz, Neal.
*A course in number theory and cryptography.*New York , Springer-Verlag. 1994. An advanced textbook, with heavy doses of number theory. -
Kullback, Solomon.
*Statistical methods in cryptanalysis.*Laguna Hills, Calif., Aegean Park Press. 1976. Serious applications of statistics in the service of cryptanalysis. -
Menezes, A. J. and Paul van Oorschot and Scott Vanstone.
*Handbook of applied cryptography.*Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press. 1997. Reference work of choice for professionals. -
Patterson, Wayne, 1945-
*Mathematical cryptology for computer scientists and mathematicians.*Totowa, N.J., Rowman & Littlefield. 1987. A very nice upper-division text, but quickly becoming outdated. -
Schneier, Bruce.
*Applied cryptography : protocols, algorithms, and source code in C.*New York, Wiley. 1996. The most popular technical reference on the topic. Includes mathematics, algorithms and protocols. -
Stallings, William.
*Cryptography and network security: principles and practice.*Upper Saddle River, N.J., Prentice Hall. 1999. Very good textbook for an upper-division audience. -
Stinson, Douglas R.
*Cryptography: theory and practice.*Boca Raton, CRC Press. 1995. A good choice for an upper-division text. -
Williams, Colin P.
*Explorations in quantum computing.*Santa Clara, Calif., TELOS. 1998.

- Agre, Philip E. and Marc Rotenberg, Eds.
*Technology and privacy: the new landscape.*Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press. 1997. Essays from a variety of perspectives about privacy with regard to technological changes (such as progress in cryptology). -
Bamford, James.
*The puzzle palace : a report on America's most secret agency.*Boston, Houghton Mifflin. 1982. A classic history of the National Security Agency. -
Bamford, James.
*Body of secrets: anatomy of the ultra-secret National Security Agency.*New York, Doubleday. 2001. An updated critique of the National Security Agency. -
Dam, Kenneth W. and Herbert S. Lin, eds.
*Cryptography's role in securing the information society.*Washington, DC, National Academy Press. 1996. A report of the National Research Council's Computer Science and Telecommunications Board's Committee to Study National Cryptography Policy. -
Diffie, Whitfield and Susan Landau.
*Privacy on the line: the politics of wiretapping and encryption.*Boston, MIT Press. 1998. Public policy, as viewed by one of the pioneers of public-key cryptography (Diffie), and one of today's leading industrial cryptologists (Landau). -
Hoffman, Lance J., ed.
*Building in big brother: the cryptographic policy debate.*New York, Springer-Verlag. 1995. Fifty-four essays on a variety of topics. An excellent source of a wide range of opinions, though some of it is now out of date.

- Fowler, Mark and Sarah Dixon and Radhi Parekh.
*The Usborne Book of Superpuzzles*Usborne Publishing Limited, London. 1994. A collection containing*Codes and Ciphers*by Mark Fowler, with numerous puzzles based on historical codes and ciphers.

- Budd, Louis J. and Edwin H. Cady, Eds.
*On Poe.*Durham, Duke University Press. 1993. Essay on pages 40-54 by Friedman details Poe as a cryptologist. -
Friedman, William F.
*The Shakespearean ciphers examined.*Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 1957. A hobby of one of the key figures in the history of American cryptanalysis. -
Harris, Robert
*Enigma*Ivy Books. 1996. A novel set at Bletchly Park in 1943. -
Stephenson, Neal.
*Cryptonomicon.*New York, Avon Press. 1999. A novel whose settings alternate between WWII cryptography and modern-day Internet cryptography. Includes the Solitaire algorithm, which uses a deck of playing cards for its keystream.

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On 25 Aug 2003, 13:09.