Dr. R. BeezerSpring 2006

- To introduce the student to the power of discrete mathematics and to become comfortable with learning new modes of mathematical thought.
- To become familiar with the two-thousand year history of cryptology, and to therefore more fully appreciate the revolutionary nature of the debut of public-key cryptography in the 1970's.
- To consider critically the societal implications created by the convergence of strong encryption, cheap computers and ubiquitous computers.
- To become a more informed consumer of encryption technologies, and a more savvy user of electronic communications.

Course Outline |

**Unit 1 History, Classical Cryptography**-
**Singh,***The Code Book*-
**Chapter 1**- The Cipher of Mary Queen of Scots
**Chapter 2**- Le Chiffre Indechiffrable
**Chapter 3**- The Mechanisation of Secrecy
**Chapter 4**- Cracking the Enigma
**Chapter 5**- The Language Barrier

**Beezer,***Mathematics and Cryptography*-
**Chapter MA**- Modular Arithmetic
**Chapter B**- Bases
**Chapter BA**- Binary Arithmetic
**Chapter SS**- Sharing a Secret

**Unit 2 Revolution, Modern Ciphers**-
**Beezer,***Mathematics and Cryptography*-
**Chapter DHKE**- Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange
**Chapter DL**- Discrete Logarithms
**Chapter DHKS**- Diffie-Hellman Knapsack Encryption
**Chapter NT**- Number Theory
**Chapter RSA**- RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adelman) Cryptography

**Singh,***The Code Book*-
**Chapter 6**- Alice and Bob Go Public
**Chapter 7**- Pretty Good Privacy

**Unit 3 The Future, Public Policy, Computer Security**-
**Singh,***The Code Book*-
**Chapter 8**- A Quantum Leap into the Future

**Levy,***Crypto***Schneier,***Secrets and Lies*

**EM Email**- Set up addresses for electronic communication. Experiment with HushMail's encrypted email.
**STEG Steganography**- Hide an encrypted message in an image, using a software tool designed for this purpose.
**MONO Monoalphabetic Substitution Cipher**- Decode a classic text that is encrypted using a classical monoalphabetic substitution cipher, using software tools to make the task more manageable.
**VIG Vigenère Cipher**- Decode a classic text that is encrypted using a classical Vigenère cipher, using software tools to make the task more manageable.
**PONT Pontifex**- Practice the Solitaire (Pontifex) algorithm, as described in the novel
*Cryptonomicon*. **SDES Simplified DES**- Encode and decode messages by hand using an educational version of the Data Encryption Standard (DES). Participate in a mock distributed brute-force attack.
**PGP1-3 Pretty Good Privacy**- Become proficient in using the encryption program Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) for public-key encryption and digital signatures. Understand the basics of key management. Three separate practicums (key generation, encryption, digital signatures).
**TIME Digital Time Stamping**- Learn to use Stamper to digitally time-stamp a message.
**ANON Anonymous Remailers**- Learn to frustrate traffic analysis by using anonymous remailers and mixmasters to camaflougue message traffic.

Bibliography |

- Alvarez, David J.
*Secret messages : codebreaking and American diplomacy, 1930-1945.*Lawrence, KS, University Press of Kansas. 2000. A good history, especially for its coverage of the pre-WWII time period. -
Benson, Robert Louis and Michael Warner, Eds.
*Venona: Soviet espionage and the American response, 1939-1957.*Washington, D.C., National Security Agency, Central Intelligence Agency. 1996. Cold War era cryptanalysis. -
Calvocoressi, Peter.
*Top secret ultra.*New York, Pantheon Books. 1980. A memoir of WWII-era cryptanalysis in Europe. -
Clark, Ronald William.
*The man who broke Purple : the life of Colonel William F. Friedman, who deciphered the Japanese code in World War II.*Boston, Little, Brown. 1977. -
Farago, Ladislas.
*The broken seal; the story of Operation Magic and the Pearl Harbor disaster.*New York, Random House. 1967. WWII-era cryptanalysis in the Pacific. -
Garlinski, Jozef.
*The Enigma war.*New York, Scribner. 1980. WWII-era cryptanalysis in Europe. -
Hinsley, F.H. and Alan Stripp, eds.
*Codebreakers : the inside story of Bletchley Park.*Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press. 1993. The history of Bletchley Park, where English and American codebreakers helped win WWII. -
Kahn, David.
*The codebreakers; the story of secret writing.*London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson. 1967. The most comprehensive history of cryptology, though insufficient for modern topics. -
Kozaczuk, Wadysaw.
*Enigma : how the German machine cipher was broken, and how it was read by the Allies in World War Two.*Frederick, Md., University Publications of America. 1984. An account of the Polish efforts to break Enigma, which laid the groundwork for Bletchley Park to eventually succeed. -
Kippenhahn, Rudolf.
*Code breaking : a history and exploration.*Woodstock, N.Y., Overlook Press. 1999. The runner-up (to Singh's*The Code Book*) as best choice for a history that also contains some simplified technical explanations. -
Singh, Simon.
*The code book : the evolution of secrecy from Mary Queen of Scots to quantum cryptography.*New York, Doubleday. 1999. A well-written popular account of the history of cryptology, with excellent technical descriptions. -
Thompson, James Westfall.
*Secret diplomacy; espionage and cryptography, 1500-1815.*New York, F. Ungar Pub. Co. 1963. A good account of classical cryptology in Europe. -
United States Army Air Forces.
*ULTRA and the history of the United States Strategic Air Force in Europe vs. the German Air Force.*Frederick, MD, University Publications of America. 1980. An official report on WWII-era cryptanalysis in Europe. -
Van Der Rhoer, Edward.
*Deadly magic : a personal account of communications intelligence in World War II in the Pacific.*New York, Scribner. 1978. WWII-era cryptanalysis in the Pacific. -
Winterbotham, F. W.
*The Ultra secret.*New York, Harper & Row. 1974. WWII-era cryptanalysis in Europe. -
Yardley, Herbert O.
*The American Black Chamber.*Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill. 1931. A classic. Yardley was the first cryptologist officially in the employ of the United States.

- Barr, Thomas H.
*Invitation to Cryptology.*Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall. 2002. Advertised for use at the freshman level for students with normal high school preparation in mathematics. - Buchmann, Johannes.
*Introduction to cryptography.*New York, Springer-Verlag. 2001. -
Beutelspacher, Albrecht.
*Cryptology.*Washington, DC, Mathematical Association of America. 1994. An entertaining elementary treatment. -
Caloyannides, Michael A.
*Privacy protection and computer forensics.*Norwood, MA, Artech House. 2004. A how-to on protecting your electronic information (and thereby telling you how to discover others). Practical uses of encryption. Legal issues. -
Churchhouse, Robert.
*Codes and Ciphers: Julius Caesar, the Enigma, and the Internet.*Cambridge University Press. 2002. Historical exposition of pre-RSA ciphers and devices, with associated mathematics. Some brief discussion of Diffie-Hellman key exchange and RSA. -
Davis, Donald M.
*The nature and power of mathematics.*Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press. 1993. Contains a short, elementary section on cryptology. -
Klugerman, Ira H. and Dan Rose.
*Cracking the code.*Lexington, Mass., COMAP. 1993. Instructional videotape. -
Garfinkel, Simson
*PGP: pretty good privacy.*Sebastopol, CA, O'Reilly & Associates. 1995. How-to book on how to use the most popular personal encryption software available. -
Lewand, Robert.
*Cryptological mathematics.*Washington, DC, Mathematical Society of America. 2000. Written for an audience of high school students, this might be the runner-up for the mathematical text for this course. -
Sinkov, Abraham.
*Elementary cryptanalysis : a mathematical approach.*Washington, D.C., Mathematical Association of America. 1980. High-school level, classical techniques only. -
Smith, Laurence Dwight.
*Cryptography, the science of secret writing.*New York, W. W. Norton. 1943. Dated. Only covers techniques for classical methods.

- Bauer, Friedrich Ludwig.
*Decrypted secrets: methods and maxims of cryptology*New York, Springer. 2000. An advanced textbook. Lots of detail on classical methods, and good photos. -
Biham, Eli.
*Differential cryptanalysis of the data encryption standard.*New York, Springer-Verlag. 1993. Detailed mathematical treatment of the first successful application of differential cryptanalysis. -
Bouwmeester, Dirk and Artur Ekert and Anton Zeilinger, Eds.
*The physics of quantum information : quantum cryptography, quantum teleportation, quantum computation.*New York, Springer. 2000. Good account of possibilities for quantum computing in cryptographic applications. -
Brassard, Gilles.
*Modern cryptology: a tutorial.*New York, Springer-Verlag. 1988. Very short, very advanced. -
Electronic Frontier Foundation.
*Cracking DES : secrets of encryption research, wiretap politics & chip design.*Sebastopal, CA, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc. 1998. Fantastic break of DES with cheap hardware, with this report prepared for distribution simultaneous with the announcement of the break. -
Friedman, William F.
*The Riverbank publications.*Laguna Hills, Calif., Aegean Park Press. 1979. A bit odd, but written by one of the key figures in the history of American cryptanalysis. -
Garrett, Paul.
*Making, breaking codes: an introduction to cryptography*Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall. 2001. An upper-division textbook. - Goldreich, Oded.
*Foundations of cryptography: basic tools.*Cambridge University Press. 2001. -
Koblitz, Neal.
*Algebraic aspects of cryptography.*New York, Springer. 1998. Beginning graduate level text. -
Koblitz, Neal.
*A course in number theory and cryptography.*New York , Springer-Verlag. 1994. An advanced textbook, with heavy doses of number theory. -
Kullback, Solomon.
*Statistical methods in cryptanalysis.*Laguna Hills, Calif., Aegean Park Press. 1976. Serious applications of statistics in the service of cryptanalysis. -
Menezes, A. J. and Paul van Oorschot and Scott Vanstone.
*Handbook of applied cryptography.*Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press. 1997. Reference work of choice for professionals. -
Patterson, Wayne, 1945-
*Mathematical cryptology for computer scientists and mathematicians.*Totowa, N.J., Rowman & Littlefield. 1987. A very nice upper-division text, but quickly becoming outdated. -
Schneier, Bruce.
*Applied cryptography : protocols, algorithms, and source code in C.*New York, Wiley. 1996. The most popular technical reference on the topic. Includes mathematics, algorithms and protocols. -
Stallings, William.
*Cryptography and network security: principles and practice.*Upper Saddle River, N.J., Prentice Hall. 1999. Very good textbook for an upper-division audience. -
Stinson, Douglas R.
*Cryptography: theory and practice.*Boca Raton, CRC Press. 1995. A good choice for an upper-division text. -
Wayner, Peter.
*Disappearing Cryptography.*Morgan Kaufmann. 2002. How-to on steganography, watermarking, mimicry, etc. -
Williams, Colin P.
*Explorations in quantum computing.*Santa Clara, Calif., TELOS. 1998.

- Agre, Philip E. and Marc Rotenberg, Eds.
*Technology and privacy: the new landscape.*Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press. 1997. Essays from a variety of perspectives about privacy with regard to technological changes (such as progress in cryptology). -
Bamford, James.
*The puzzle palace : a report on America's most secret agency.*Boston, Houghton Mifflin. 1982. A classic history of the National Security Agency. -
Bamford, James.
*Body of secrets: anatomy of the ultra-secret National Security Agency.*New York, Doubleday. 2001. An updated critique of the National Security Agency. -
Dam, Kenneth W. and Herbert S. Lin, eds.
*Cryptography's role in securing the information society.*Washington, DC, National Academy Press. 1996. A report of the National Research Council's Computer Science and Telecommunications Board's Committee to Study National Cryptography Policy. -
Diffie, Whitfield and Susan Landau.
*Privacy on the line: the politics of wiretapping and encryption.*Boston, MIT Press. 1998. Public policy, as viewed by one of the pioneers of public-key cryptography (Diffie), and one of today's leading industrial cryptologists (Landau). -
Hoffman, Lance J., ed.
*Building in big brother: the cryptographic policy debate.*New York, Springer-Verlag. 1995. Fifty-four essays on a variety of topics. An excellent source of a wide range of opinions, though some of it is now out of date. -
Lessig, Lawrence.
*Code and other laws of cyberspace.*Basic Books. 2000. Lessig writes on the interplay of networks, encryption, copyrights and the law. -
Lessig, Lawrence.
*The future of ideas : the fate of the commons in a connected world.*Vintage. 2002. Lessig writes on the interplay of networks, encryption, copyrights and the law. -
Lessig, Lawrence.
*Free culture: how big media uses technology and the law to lock down culture and control creativity.*Penguin Books. 2000. Lessig writes on the interplay of networks, encryption, copyrights and the law.

- Chronicle Books.
*Mensa Secret Codes for Kids*Chronicle Books. 2001. - Fowler, Mark and Sarah Dixon and Radhi Parekh.
*The Usborne Book of Superpuzzles*Usborne Publishing Limited, London. 1994. A collection containing*Codes and Ciphers*by Mark Fowler, with numerous puzzles based on historical codes and ciphers.

- Brown, Dan.
*Digital Fortress: A Thriller.*St. Martin's Griffin, 2000. A novel about the NSA's head cryptographer, Susan Fletcher, "a brilliant, beautiful mathematician." -
Brown, Dan.
*The Da Vinci Code.*Doubleday, 2003. Bestseller with a main character (Sophie Neveu) who is a cryptanalyst. Contains a few simple puzzles of a cryptographic nature. -
Budd, Louis J. and Edwin H. Cady, Eds.
*On Poe.*Durham, Duke University Press. 1993. Essay on pages 40-54 by Friedman details Poe as a cryptologist. -
Friedman, William F.
*The Shakespearean ciphers examined.*Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 1957. A hobby of one of the key figures in the history of American cryptanalysis. -
Harris, Robert
*Enigma*Ivy Books. 1996. A novel set at Bletchly Park in 1943. -
Stephenson, Neal.
*Cryptonomicon.*New York, Avon Press. 1999. A novel whose settings alternate between WWII cryptography and modern-day Internet cryptography. Includes the Solitaire algorithm, which uses a deck of playing cards for its keystream.

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On 03 Jan 2006, 12:08.